World Day of Peace Held On 1st January Every Year With Theme & World Day Of Peace Pope Message- Full History, Significance & Celebration
Table Of Contents
- 1 World Day Of Peace Famous Slogan
- 2 World Day Of Peace 2021
- 3 World Day Of Peace Held On?
- 4 World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
- 5 World Day Of Peace 2021 Theme
- 6 Pope Message On World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
- 7 How To Celebrate World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
- 8 Theme Of World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
- 9 Pope’s World Day Of Peace 2021 Message
- 10 Pope Prayer For Peace – Word Day Of Peace
- 11 Pope’s World Day of Peace Message, 1 January 2021
- 12 Peace be to this house World Day Of Peace
- 13 The Challenge of Good Politics World Day Of Peace
- 14 Charity and Human Virtues World Day Of Peace
- 15 Political Vices World Day Of Peace
- 16 Good Politics World Day Of Peace
- 17 Say No To War World Day Of Peace
- 18 A Great Project of Peace World Day Of Peace
- 19 World Day of Peace History Wikipedia
- 20 World Day of Peace Messages List (1968-2021)
- 21 World Day of Peace Significance
- 22 Essay On World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
World Day Of Peace Famous Slogan
“The world must be educated to love Peace, to build it up and defend it.”
– Pope Paul VI, 1968
World Day Of Peace 2021
“Hope” is again at the heart of Pope Francis latest World Day of Peace message, which opens with the statement: “Peace is a great and precious value, the object of our hope and the aspiration of the entire human family”.
Hope, writes the Pope, is “the virtue that inspires us and keeps us moving forward, even when obstacles seem insurmountable”.
Pope Francis acknowledges how “the terrible trials of internal and international conflicts, often aggravated by ruthless acts of violence, have an enduring effect on the body and soul of humanity”.
“Mistrust and fear weaken relationships and increase the risk of violence, creating a vicious circle that can never lead to a relationship of peace”.
On the other hand, writes Pope Francis, “Peace emerges from the depths of the human heart and political will must always be renewed, so that new ways can be found to reconcile and unite individuals and communities”.
That journey of reconciliation “calls for patience and trust”, says the Pope. “Peace will not be obtained unless it is hoped for”.
The world does not need empty words, continues Pope Francis, “but convinced witnesses, peacemakers who are open to a dialogue that rejects exclusion or manipulation”.
Peace is a process that requires enduring commitment, he adds. “It is a patient effort to seek truth and justice, to honor the memory of victims and to open the way, step by step, to a shared hope stronger than the desire for vengeance”.
Finally, Pope Francis refers to the recent Synod on the Pan-Amazon Region. “Faced with the consequences of our hostility towards others, our lack of respect for our common home or our abusive exploitation of natural resources, we are in need of an ecological conversion”, he writes, one that will “lead us to a new way of looking at life”.
The Pope concludes with a renewed call “for a peaceful relationship between communities and the land, between present and past, between experience…and hope”.
World Day Of Peace Held On?
January 1 is the World Day of Peace.
World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
On January 1st, 2021 Pope will mark the annual World Day of Peace with a message titled: “Good Politics is at the Service of Peace.” Pope Francis compels everyone to be engaged in the work of advocating for and with those whose voices are marginalized, to ensure the protection and fulfillment of the ‘youngest and smallest.’ World Day Of Peace Pope Message.
World Day Of Peace 2021 Theme
Peace as a Journey of Hope: Dialogue, Reconciliation and Ecological Conversion
Pope Message On World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
How can we use our political and social systems to seek peace? In announcing the theme for this year’s World Day of Peace on January 1, 2021, the Vatican made note of the call to all of us to engage with our civic systems saying, “Political responsibility belongs to every citizen and, in particular, to those that have received the mandate to protect and to govern.”
Instead of indifference, cynicism or thinking our voices do not matter, we believe the Gospel calls us to raise our voices for the common good, for “politics is one of the highest forms of charity.” World Day Of Peace Pope Message
Advocating for and with communities who are oppressed, disadvantaged, or excluded is a response to our baptismal call to love all members of the Body of Christ, in imitation of Christ’s love.
God created human beings as social and relational creatures, made in his own image. We are called to reach out and build relationships of love and justice, making love visible in structures and policies through political engagement. World Day Of Peace Pope Message
Two areas in which we are called to protect human dignity is in our “concern for the future of life and of the planet, of the youngest and littlest.” We must work to ensure that the dignity of all is protected is through our political, social, and economic systems. As Pope Francis teaches us in his World Day of Peace Message, these systems must always work to promote peace in our communities.
Catholic Social Teaching demands that politics must have a preferential option for the poor and vulnerable, and not be used to promote violence or marginalize those in poverty. Instead, “Good politics is at the service of peace.”
Pope Francis’ message is the most recent in a long history of messages for the World Day of Peace beginning with Pope Paul VI in 1968. World Day Of Peace Pope Message
How To Celebrate World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
Pray for the grace to approach all political and social issues from a starting point of faith, love, and a spirit of generosity. You may also try one of the prayer practices to enrich your experience of prayer for peace.
Civic participation and faithful citizenship require us to understand the political and social issues that impact our brothers and sisters throughout the world. Visit USCCB resources on Catholic Social Teaching and civic engagement to further your knowledge. Read stories of hope to learn how faith communities are answering the call to work for peace and justice.
Join tens of thousands of Catholics to advocate for policies that support justice and peace in the U.S. and those experiencing poverty or conflict around the world.
Theme Of World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
The theme of Pope Message for the 53rd World Day of Peace, marked on 1 January 2021, have been revealed in a note and a comment published by the Holy See Press Office.
Pope’s World Day Of Peace 2021 Message
Politics must be at the service of peace
The Holy See Press Office statement said Pope Francis’ Message for the coming World Day of Peace highlights the need for politics to be at the service of peace: “Political responsibility belongs to every citizen, and in particular to those who have been given the mandate to protect and govern”.
There is no peace without mutual trust
The Press Office note continues pointing out that “this mission consists in safeguarding the law and encouraging dialogue between all actors of society, between generations, and between cultures”.
The first condition for trust, it says, is respect for the given word. It adds that “political commitment – which is one of the highest expressions of charity – implies concern for the future of life and of the planet, of the youngest and of the smallest, in their thirst for fulfillment”.
Pope Prayer For Peace – Word Day Of Peace
Lord God of peace, hear our prayer!
We have tried so many times and over so many years to resolve our conflicts by our own powers and by the force of our arms. How many moments of hostility and darkness have we experienced; how much blood has been shed; how many lives have been shattered; how many hopes have been buried . . . Now, Lord, come to our aid! Grant us peace, teach us peace; guide our steps in the way of peace. World Day Of Peace Pope Message
Open our eyes and our hearts and give us the courage to say: “Never again war!” . . . Instill in our hearts the courage to take concrete steps to achieve peace. Keep alive within us the flame of hope, so that with patience and perseverance we may opt for dialogue and reconciliation.
In this way may peace triumph at last, and may the words “division”, “hatred” and “war” be banished from the heart of every man and woman. . . . Renew our hearts and minds, so that the word which always brings us together will be “brother”, and our way of life will always be that of Shalom, Peace, Salaam!
Pope’s World Day of Peace Message, 1 January 2021
MESSAGE OF HIS HOLINESS POPE FOR THE CELEBRATION OF THE 53rd
WORLD DAY OF PEACE
1 JANUARY 2021
Good politics is at the service of peace
Peace be to this house World Day Of Peace
In sending his disciples forth on a mission, Jesus told them: “Whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace be to this house!’ And if a son of peace is there, your peace shall rest upon him; but if not, it shall return to you”.
Bringing peace is central to the mission of Christ’s disciples. That peace is offered to all those men and women who long for peace amid the tragedies and violence that mark human history.
The “house” of which Jesus speaks is every family, community, country, and continent, in all their diversity and history. It is first and foremost each individual person, without distinction or discrimination.
But it is also our “common home”: the world in which God has placed us and which we are called to care for and cultivate.
So let this be my greeting at the beginning of the New Year: “Peace be to this house!”
The Challenge of Good Politics World Day Of Peace
Peace is like the hope which the poet Charles Péguy celebrated. It is like a delicate flower struggling to blossom on the stony ground of violence. We know that the thirst for power at any price leads to abuses and injustice.
Politics is an essential means of building human community and institutions, but when political life is not seen as a form of service to society as a whole, it can become a means of oppression, marginalization and even destruction.
Jesus tells us that, “if anyone would be first, he must be last of all and servant of all”. In the words of Pope Paul VI, “to take politics seriously at its different levels – local, regional, national and worldwide – is to affirm the duty of each individual to acknowledge the reality and value of the freedom offered him to work at one and the same time for the good of the city, the nation and all mankind”.
Political office and political responsibility thus constantly challenge those called to the service of their country to make every effort to protect those who live there and to create the conditions for a worthy and just future.
If exercising with basic respect for the life, freedom, and dignity of persons, political life can indeed become an outstanding form of charity.
Charity and Human Virtues World Day Of Peace
Pope Benedict XVI noted that “every Christian is called to practice charity in a manner corresponding to his vocation and according to the degree of influence he wields in the pólis… When animated by charity, commitment to the common good has greater worth than a merely secular and political stand would have… Man’s earthly activity, when inspired and sustained by charity, contributes to the building of the universal city of God, which is the goal of the history of the human family”.
This is a program on which all politicians, whatever their culture or religion, can agree if they wish to work together for the good of the human family and to practice those human virtues that sustain all sound political activity: justice, equality, mutual respect, sincerity, honesty, fidelity.
In this regard, it may be helpful to recall the “Beatitudes of the Politician”, proposed by Vietnamese Cardinal François-Xavier Nguyễn Vãn Thuận, a faithful witness to the Gospel who died in 2002:
Blessed be the politician with a lofty sense and deep understanding of his role.
Blessed be the politician who personally exemplifies credibility.
Blessed be the politician who works for the common good and not his or her own interest.
Blessed be the politician who remains consistent.
Blessed be the politician who works for unity.
Blessed be the politician who works to accomplish radical change.
Blessed be the politician who is capable of listening.
Blessed be the politician who is without fear.
Every election and re-election, and every stage of public life is an opportunity to return to the original points of reference that inspire justice and law. One thing is certain: good politics is at the service of peace.
It respects and promotes fundamental human rights, which are at the same time mutual obligations, enabling a bond of trust and gratitude to be forged between the present and future generations.
Political Vices World Day Of Peace
Sadly, together with its virtues, politics also has its share of vices, whether due to personal incompetence or to flaws in the system and its institutions. Clearly, these vices detract from the credibility of political life overall, as well as the authority, decisions, and actions of those engaged in it.
These vices, which undermine the idea of authentic democracy, bring disgrace to public life and threaten social harmony.
We think of corruption in its varied forms: the misappropriation of public resources, the exploitation of individuals, the denial of rights, the flouting of community rules, dishonest gain, the justification of power by force or the arbitrary appeal to reason d’état and the refusal to relinquish power.
To which we can add xenophobia, racism, lack of concern for the natural environment, the plundering of natural resources for the sake of quick profit and contempt for those forced into exile.
Good Politics World Day Of Peace
When the exercise of political power aims only at protecting the interests of a few privileged individuals, the future is compromised and young people can be tempted to lose confidence since they are relegated to the margins of society without the possibility of helping to build the future.
But when politics concretely foster the talents of young people and their aspirations, peace grows in their outlook and on their faces. It becomes a confident assurance that says, “I trust you and with you, I believe” that we can all work together for the common good.
Politics is at the service of peace if it finds expression in the recognition of the gifts and abilities of each individual. “What could be more beautiful than an outstretched hand? It was meant by God to offer and to receive. God did not want it to kill (cf. Gen 4:1ff) or to inflict suffering, but to offer care and help in life. Together with our heart and our intelligence, our hands too can become a means of dialogue”.
Everyone can contribute his or her stone to help build the common home. Authentic political life, grounded in law and in frank and fair relations between individuals, experiences renewal whenever we are convinced that every woman, man, and generation brings the promise of new relational, intellectual, cultural and spiritual energies.
That kind of trust is never easy to achieve, because human relations are complex, especially in our own times, marked by a climate of mistrust rooted in the fear of others or of strangers, or anxiety about one’s personal security. Sadly, it is also seen at the political level, in attitudes of rejection or forms of nationalism that call into question the fraternity of which our globalized world has such great need.
Today more than ever, our societies need “artisans of peace” who can be messengers and authentic witnesses of God the Father, who wills the good and the happiness of the human family.
Say No To War World Day Of Peace
A hundred years after the end of the First World War, as we remember the young people killed in those battles and the civilian populations torn apart, we are more conscious than ever of the terrible lesson taught by fratricidal wars: peace can never be reduced solely to a balance between power and fear. To threaten others is to lower them to the status of objects and to deny their dignity.
This is why we state once more that an escalation of intimidation, and the uncontrolled proliferation of arms, is contrary to morality and the search for true peace. Terror exerted over those who are most vulnerable contributes to the exile of entire populations who seek a place of peace.
Political addresses that tend to blame every evil on migrants and to deprive the poor of hope are unacceptable. Rather, there is a need to reaffirm that peace is based on respect for each person, whatever his or her background, on respect for the law and the common good, on respect for the environment entrusted to our care and for the richness of the moral tradition inherited from past generations.
Our thoughts turn in a particular way to all those children currently living in areas of conflict, and to all those who work to protect their lives and defend their rights. One out of every six children in our world is affected by the violence of war or its effects, even when they are not enrolled as child soldiers or held hostage by armed groups. The witness given by those who work to defend them and their dignity is most precious for the future of humanity.
A Great Project of Peace World Day Of Peace
In these days, we celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in the wake of the Second World War. In this context, let us also remember the observation of Pope John XXIII: “Man’s awareness of his rights must inevitably lead him to the recognition of his duties.
The possession of rights involves the duty of implementing those rights, for they are the expression of a man’s personal dignity. And the possession of rights also involves their recognition and respect by others”.
Peace, in effect, is the fruit of a great political project grounded in the mutual responsibility and interdependence of human beings. But it is also a challenge that demands to be taken up ever anew. It entails a conversion of heart and soul; it is both interior and communal, and it has three inseparable aspects:
– peace with oneself, rejecting inflexibility, anger, and impatience; in the words of Saint Francis de Sales, showing “a bit of sweetness towards oneself” in order to offer “a bit of sweetness to others”;
– peace with others: family members, friends, strangers, the poor and the suffering, being unafraid to encounter them and listen to what they have to say;
– peace with all creation, rediscovering the grandeur of God’s gift and our individual and shared responsibility as inhabitants of this world, citizens, and builders of the future.
The politics of peace, conscious of and deeply concerned for every situation of human vulnerability, can always draw inspiration from the Magnificat, the hymn that Mary, the Mother of Christ the Saviour and Queen of Peace, sang in the name of all mankind: “He has mercy on those who fear him in every generation.
He has shown the strength of his arm; he has scattered the proud in their conceit. He has cast down the mighty from their thrones, and has lifted up the lowly; …for he has remembered his promise of mercy, the promise he made to our fathers, to Abraham and his children forever”
World Day of Peace History Wikipedia
World Day of Peace is a feast day of the Roman Catholic Church dedicated to universal peace, held on 1 January, the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God. Pope Paul VI established it in 1967, being inspired by the encyclical Pacem in Terris of Pope John XXIII and with reference to his own encyclical Populorum Progressio. The day was first observed on 1 January 1968. World Day Of Peace History.
World Day of Peace often has been an occasion on which the Popes made magisterial declarations of social doctrine. Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul II made important declarations on the Day in each year of their pontificates regarding the United Nations, human rights, women’s rights, labor unions, economic development, the right to life, international diplomacy, peace in the Holy Land (Israel), globalization, and terrorism. World Day Of Peace History
In England and Wales, “Peace Sunday” is traditionally observed on the Second Sunday of Ordinary Time, which is the Sunday occurring between 14 and 20 January, inclusive. The British branch of the Pax Christi movement prepares suggested material for it annually. World Day Of Peace History
World Day of Peace Messages List (1968-2021)
Pope Francis World Day Of Peace Message
2018 – Migrants and refugees: men and women in search of peace
2017 – Nonviolence: a style of politics for peace
2016 – Overcome indifference and win the peace
2015 – No longer slaves, but brothers and sisters
2014 – Fraternity, the foundation, and the pathway to peace
Pope Benedict XVI World Day Of Peace Message
2013 – Blessed are the Peacemakers
2012 – Educating Young People in Justice and Peace
2011 – Religious Freedom, the Path to Peace
2010 – If You Want to Cultivate Peace, Protect Creation
2009 – Fighting Poverty to Build Peace
2008 – The Human Family, A Community of Peace
2007 – The Human Person, the Heart of Peace
2006 – In Truth, Peace
Pope John Paul II World Day Of Peace Message
2005 – Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good
2004 – An ever timely commitment: teaching peace
2003 – Pacem in Terris: a permanent commitment
2002 – No peace without justice, no justice without forgiveness
2001 – Dialogue between cultures for a civilization of love and peace
2000 – Peace on earth to those whom God loves!
1999 – Respect for human rights: the secret of true peace
1998 – From the justice of each comes peace for all
1997 – Offer forgiveness and receive peace
1996 – Let us give children a future of peace
1995 – Women: teachers of peace
1994 – The family creates the peace of the human family
1993 – If you want peace – reach out to the poor
1992 – Believers united in building peace
1991 – If you want peace – respect the conscience of every person
1990 – Peace with God the Creator – peace with all of the creation
1989 – To build peace – respect minorities
1988 – Religious freedom: condition for peace
1987 – Development and solidarity: two keys to peace
1986 – Peace is a value with no frontiers North-South – East-West: only one peace
1985 – Peace and youth go forward together
1984 – “From a new heart – peace is born”
1983 – Dialogue for peace – a challenge for our time
1982 – Peace: a gift of God entrusted to us!
1981 – To serve peace – respect freedom
1980 – Truth – the power of peace
1979 – “To reach peace – teach peace”
Pope Paul VI World Day Of Peace Message
1978 – No to violence, yes to peace
1977 – If you want peace, defend life
1976 – The real weapons of peace
1975 – Reconciliation – the way to peace
1974 – Peace depends on you too
1973 – Peace is possible!
1972 – If you want Peace, work for Justice
1971 – Every man is my brother
1970 – To be reconciled with each other, to educate themselves for Peace
1969 – The promotion of Human Rights, the way to Peace
1968 – The Day of Peace
World Day of Peace Significance
As the saying goes, “Politics and religion don’t mix.” Although this cliché is espoused by many, you will not hear it from Pope Francis.
On the contrary, the leader of the Catholic Church firmly teaches that our Gospel-based faith has a wealth of wisdom to offer the often corrupt world of politics. And that it is our duty to strive to infuse that wisdom into the body politic.
As exhibit “A,” consider the Holy Father’s January 1 World Day of Peace message—appropriately titled “Good politics is at the service of peace.”
Peace “is like a delicate flower struggling to blossom on the stony ground of violence,” the pope writes. “Politics is an essential means of building human community and institutions, but when political life is not seen as a form of service to society as a whole, it can become a means of oppression, marginalization and even destruction.”
This is so true. As one of many sad examples, consider how often political officials allow and even authorize the oppression of minority groups like the Rohingya in Myanmar, and now in Bangladesh.
And consider that many political leaders in governments throughout the world, including democracies, largely ignore the marginalized poor—in effect exiling them to the fringes of society, and even leaving millions of them to die every year. World Day Of Peace History
Among the “political vices,” the pope cites are “xenophobia, racism, lack of concern for the natural environment, the plundering of natural resources for the sake of quick profit and contempt for those forced into exile.” All of which brings to mind recent dire environmental warnings from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Climate Assessment, and the often cold-hearted political response to suffering migrants.
Here the pontiff’s words are equally strong, “Political addresses that tend to blame every evil on migrants and to deprive the poor of hope are unacceptable. Rather, there is a need to reaffirm that peace is based on respect for each person, whatever his or her background.” World Day Of Peace History
Pope Francis then challenges the immoral tragedy of war and fear. He says, “Peace can never be reduced solely to a balance between power and fear.” And adds that the proliferation of arms is “contrary to morality and the search for true peace.”
And he condemns “forms of nationalism that call into question the fraternity of which our globalized world has such great need.”
In the world—political and otherwise—where self-centered egos often dominate, Pope Francis calls our attention to the humble corrective teaching of Jesus: “If anyone would be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.”
Francis then challengingly calls us to be creative peacemakers: “Today more than ever, our societies need ‘artisans of peace’ who can be messengers and authentic witnesses of God the Father, who wills the good and happiness of the human family.” World Day Of Peace History
And to that Pope Francis encouragingly adds, “Everyone can contribute his or her stone to help build the common home.” With open hearts and minds to God, let each of us ask: What is my stone? And how can I best use it to build our common home?
And then consider a New Year’s resolution worth keeping: Read “Good politics is at the service of peace” and prayerfully strive to put it into practice.
Essay On World Day Of Peace 2021/ 2022/ 2023
In his message for the World Day of Peace that will be celebrated in Catholic churches worldwide on New Year’s Day, Pope Francis focused on “good politics.” The text, which was presented by Cardinal Peter Turkson at a Vatican press conference today, Dec. 18, is being sent by the Secretariat of State through the papal nuncios to all heads of state across the world, as well as to the heads of international institutions.
While emphasizing that politics is “at the service of peace” and “respects and promotes fundamental human rights, which are at the same time mutual obligations,” the pope highlighted the fact that “the thirst for power at any price leads to abuses and injustice.”
Pope Francis is deeply concerned about the growing threat to peace in today’s world, which he sees as engaged in “a third world war, piecemeal.” In his 2,000-word message, he called politics “an essential means of building human community and institutions” and a noble profession.
At the same time, he warned that “when political life is not seen as a form of service to society as a whole, it can become a means of oppression, marginalization, and destruction.”
His message is the 52nd annual message for the World Day of Peace since St. Paul VI began the tradition more than half a century ago. As is customary, it is being sent not only to persons with political responsibility at the national and international levels but also to bishops worldwide. The text is meant to be studied in dioceses and parishes to help educate the Catholic faithful in the ways of peace.
Pope Francis warned against the vices that are too often linked to politics today and do not build peace in society. He lists several sins that permeate political life in many countries, including corruption, which includes “the misappropriation of public resources, the exploitation of individuals, the denial of rights, the flouting of community rules, dishonest gain, the justification of power by force or the arbitrary appeal to reason d’état and the refusal to relinquish power.” Other vices he listed included xenophobia, racism, lack of concern for the natural environment, the plundering of natural resources for the sake of quick profit and “contempt for those forced into exile.”
Pope Francis also offered a reminder that “bringing peace is central to the mission of Christ’s disciples. That peace is offered to all those men and women who long for peace amid the tragedies and violence that mark human history.”
He warned, however, that “when the exercise of political power aims only at protecting the interests of a few privileged individuals, the future is compromised and young people can be tempted to lose confidence since they are relegated to the margins of society without the possibility of helping to build the future.”
Pope Francis acknowledged that “human relations are complex, especially in our own times, marked by a climate of mistrust rooted in the fear of others or of strangers, or anxiety about one’s personal security.”
Such attitudes are also present at the political level, “in attitudes of rejection or forms of nationalism that call into question the fraternity of which our globalized world has such great need,” whereas what societies need more than ever are “artisans of peace.”
Recalling the end of World War I a century ago, Pope Francis restated a constant refrain: “no to war and to the strategy of fear.” He declared, moreover, that “an escalation of intimidation, and the uncontrolled proliferation of arms, is contrary to morality and the search for true peace.”
Terror exerted over those who are most vulnerable, he stated, “contributes to the exile of entire populations who seek a place of peace.” He cited a striking statistic that “one out of every six children in our world is affected by the violence of war or its effects, even when they are not enrolled as child soldiers or held hostage by armed groups.”
He concluded his message by identifying three inseparable aspects of peace: first, “peace with oneself, rejecting inflexibility, anger and impatience”; second, “peace with others: family members, friends, strangers, the poor and the suffering, being unafraid to encounter them and listen to what they have to say”; and, third, “peace with all creation, rediscovering the grandeur of God’s gift and our individual and shared responsibility as inhabitants of this world, citizens and builders of the future.”